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- The Object Hierarchy
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The OpenGL Longs Peak object model is substantially defined now, and we have a good notion of what a Longs Peak program will look like at a high level.
The Object Hierarchy
Many smaller details are still being filled in, but after reading this article you should understand Longs Peak in considerable detail. For example, both OpenGL 2. The objects defined in Longs Peak fall into several different categories depending on their behavior and semantics. In a true object-oriented language binding of the API, these categories would be abstract classes from which the concrete classes inherit behavior.
In any event, the categories are as follows:.
Each of the concrete object classes mentioned above is explained in somewhat more detail here. The descriptions are organized according to the dependencies of the object graph, to avoid backwards references. Format Objects fully resolve data formats that will be used in creating other types of objects.
Format objects are a powerful generalization of the internal format parameter used in specifying texture and pixel images in OpenGL 2. In addition to the raw data format, format objects include:. Buffer Objects replace vertex arrays and pixel buffers, texture images, and render buffers from OpenGL 2.
There are two types of buffer objects.
Images are formatted buffers with a size, shape dimensionality , and format object attachment. Changing buffer contents is done with APIs to load data lpBufferData and lpImageDataD and to map buffers in and out of client memory with several options allowing considerable flexibility in usage.
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In Longs Peak, texture images and texture filters have been completely decoupled; a texture filter can be used with many different image objects, and an image can be used with many different texture filter objects. Shader Objects are a typically compiled representation of part or all of a shader program, defined using a program string. A shader object may represent part or all of a stage, such as vertex or fragment, of the graphics pipeline.
Program Objects are container objects which link together one or more shader objects and associate them with a set of images, texture filters, and uniform buffers to fully define one or more stages in the programmable graphics pipeline. There is no incremental relinking; if a shader needs to be changed, simply create a new program object. Frame buffer Objects are containers which combine one or more images to represent a complete rendering target.
When image objects are attached to an FBO, a single 2D image must be selected for attachment. For example, a 3D mipmap could have a particular mipmap level and Z offset slice selected, and the resulting 2D image attached as a color attachment.
Each attachment point has an associated format object for determining image compatibility. When an image is bound to an FBO attachment, the format object used to create the image and the format object associated with the attachment point must be the same format object or validation fails. This somewhat draconian constraint greatly simplifies and speeds validation. Vertex Array Objects are containers which encapsulate a complete set of vertex buffers together with the interpretation stride, type, etc.
That means no separate client arrays or enables! It also becomes very efficient to switch sets of vertex buffers in and out, since only a single VAO need be bound -- in contrast to the many independent arrays, and their interpretation, that have to be set in OpenGL 2.
На сколько снижены проценты по кредиткам Сбербанка
Sync Objects are semaphores which may be set, polled, or waited upon by the client, and are used to coordinate operations between the Longs Peak server and all of the application threads associated with Longs Peak contexts in the same share group. Two subclasses of sync objects exist to date.
Fence Syncs associate their semaphore with completion of a particular command set with lpFence by the graphics hardware, and are used to indicate completion of rendering to a texture, completion of object creation, and other such events. Query Syncs start a region with lpBeginQuery , and keep count of fragments rendered within that region.
After lpEndQuery is called to end the query region, the semaphore is signaled once the final fragment count is available within the query object. In the future we will probably define other types of syncs associated with specific hardware events -- an example would be a sync associated with monitor vertical retrace -- as well as ways to convert syncs into equivalent platform-specific synchronization primitives, such as Windows events or pthreads semaphores.
The remaining objects making up Longs Peak are still being precisely defined. Just as in OpenGL 2. Unlike OpenGL 2. A small number of objects are required to define the pipeline state. Changing state by binding objects can be very efficient compared to the OpenGL 2. This approach will also be useful for applications and middleware layers performing complex state management.
Figure 1: Graphics Context Bindings.
The Longs Peak context contains bindings for geometry a vertex array object , programs a program object , a rendering target framebuffer object , sample operations state, and remaining fixed-functionality state affecting rasterization, hints and other miscellaneous state. In this diagram, yellow objects are containers, green objects are state objects, blue objects are data objects, red blocks represent attributes of container and state objects, and arrows represent attachments to objects or bindings to the context.
The context itself, while not strictly speaking an object, is shown in yellow-red to indicate that it takes on aspects of a container object. View Closeup.
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Once all required objects are bound to the context, we can draw geometry. The drawing call looks very much like the OpenGL 2. Then count vertices starting at index first , ending with count[primCount-1] vertices starting at index first[primCount-1]. Finally, instanceCount is used for geometry instancing; the entire set of ranges will be drawn instanceCount times, each time specifying an instance ID available to the vertex shader, starting at 0 and ending at instanceCount The drawing calls are among the small number of Longs Peak entry points that do not take an object as an argument, since all the objects they use are already bound to the graphics context.
The outline is not intended to be detailed source code, just to give a sense of the steps that will need to be taken to fully define the objects required for rendering.
Сбербанк снизил ставки по кредиткам в 2017 году
While this initialization looks complex, most of it is simple "boilerplate" code that can readily be encapsulated in utility libraries or middleware such as GLUT. It is also likely that at least some of the required objects can be predefined by the driver; for example, if the application is rendering to a window-system provided drawable, then a "default framebuffer object" will be provided. While we still have a lot of work to do, and the final details may differ slightly, the ARB has now defined the overall structure of the Longs Peak API and the organization and definition of the object classes in the API.
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